Rationalism is a philosophy of reason, logic and critical thought. Rationalism helps distinguish truth from falsehood, make informed, evidence-based decisions and encourages intellectual autonomy, skepticism, and a commitment to rational inquiry and open-mindedness.
Key rationalist thinkers during the age of Enlightenment included René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza and Gottfried Leibniz, but the use of reason and logic for knowledge and understanding can be traced back to Plato and Aristotle.
Rationalism continues through the 19th century to influence mathematics, logic, and epistemology. Today, rationalism remains an important philosophy, particularly in math and computer science, and the use of reason and deduction are essential for understanding and problem-solving.
What is the relationship between reason and experience in the rationalist approach to knowledge?
How can we distinguish between rational knowledge and other forms of knowledge, such as religious or intuitive knowledge?
To what extent is rationalism compatible with other philosophical approaches, such as empiricism or pragmatism?
How can we determine the limits of rational knowledge, and what are the implications of these limits for our understanding of the world?
How does the rationalist approach account for the role of emotions, intuition, and subjective experience in our understanding of the world?
How can we reconcile the inherent uncertainty and fallibility of human reasoning with the pursuit of objective truth?
- What are the ethical and political implications of the rationalist approach, and how can we ensure that reason is used for the betterment of humanity?
Choose a topic you have a strong opinion about (gun control, property rights, climate change, social media, etc.). Write down your beliefs about the topic and reasons why you hold those beliefs. Identify any assumptions you are making or evidence you may be ignoring.
Consider alternative perspectives and evaluate the validity and reliability of their sources of information. Revise your beliefs based on evidence and arguments you evaluate. Reflect on what changed about your original belief, assumptions or arguments.